Cisco Routers

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EtherChannel provides incremental trunk speeds between Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. EtherChannel combines multiple Fast ...

Looking Toward the Future - Cisco Systems

Looking Toward the Future by Vint Cerf. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was formed 9 years ago....


Monday, January 21, 2013

First Hop Redundancy protocol comparison (HSRP,VRRP,GLBP) with the diagram

This time, I will talk about a First Hop Redundancy Protocol (FHRP) that i have already made it as a short note. I could pass CISCO exam because of this so i just would like to share. You can then compare your solution with a suggested solution and apply with your business. Accordingly, you can take advantage of a first-hop redundancy protocol. ... HSRP, VRRP and GLBP are the main three first hop redundancy protocols.

The following table provides difference HSRP, VRRP and GLBP protocols.
Administrative Distances Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)
Concept Provides default gateway redundancy using one active and one standby router; standardized but licensed by Cisco Systems An open-standard alternative to Cisco's HSRP,
providing the same functionality
Supports arbitrary load balancing in addition to
redundancy across gateways; Cisco proprietary
Scope Cisco Proprietary IEEE Standard Cisco Proprietary
Standard RFC 2281 RFC 3768 none
Background Created by Cisco, for Cisco in 1994  Created by the IETF in 1999  Created by Cisco, for Cisco in 2005 
Load balancing No No Yes
Transport UDP/1985 IP/112 UDP/3222
Default Priority 100 100 100
Default Hello 3 sec 1 sec 3 sec
Timer Hello 3 sec
Hold 10 sec
Advertisement 1 sec
Master Down interval 3*Advertisement + skew time
Hello 3 sec
Hold 10 sec
Multicast Group
Mac Address 0000.0c07.acxx 0000.5e00.01xx 0007.b4xx.xxxx
IPV6 support Yes No Yes
Interface States Speak: Gateway election in progress
Active: Active router/VG
Standby: Backup router/VG
Listen: Not the active router/VG
Master: Acting as the virtual router
Backup: All non-master routers
Speak: Gateway election in progress
Active: Active router/VG
Standby: Backup router/VG
Listen: Not the active router/VG
Advantages • Easy to configure, the protocol does not affect the routing tables or hosts configuration.

• The traffic increase caused by HSRP is minimal.
• Simplified network management: Deploying VRRP on multicast and broadcast LANs such as Ethernet, you can ensure that the system can still provide highly reliable default links without changing configurations (such as dynamic routing protocols or route discovery protocols) when a device fails, and prevent network interruption due to a single link failure.

• High adaptability: A VRRP packet is encapsulated in an IP packet, and supports different kinds of upper layer protocols.

• Low network overhead: VRRP defines only one packet type, VRRP advertisement, and only the master in a VRRP group can send VRRP advertisements.
• Efficient use of network resources: multiple paths upstream from the gateways can be utilized simultaneously.

• Higher availability: GLBP offers enhanced redundancy eliminating single point of failure of the first-hop gateway. An enhanced object-tracking feature can be used with GLBP to ensure the redundancy implementation mirrors network capabilities. This same feature is also available for HSRP and VRRP.

• Automatic load balancing: Off-net traffic is shared among available gateways on a per-host basis, according to the defined load-balancing algorithm.

• Lower administration costs: Since all hosts on a subnet can use a common default gateway while load balancing is still achieved, administration of multiple groups and gateways is unnecessary.

• Simpler Access-layer design: More efficient use of resources is now possible without configuring additional VLANs and subnets.
Disadvantages • Three second recovery time is hardly acceptable for real time traffic, such as voice over IP traffic.
• HSRP is a weak protocol from the security point of view (see Section 4.5.4).
• HSRP is a Cisco proprietary protocol, while in a free patent protocol, further development is feasible.
No security is used, as the offered authentication method is weak. • Cisco proprietary protocol.
• Higher complexity on network management as a result of high number of configurable parameters to take into consideration
The previous diagram illustrates Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) diagram

The previous diagram illustrates the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)

The previous diagram illustrates Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)

Download Configuring HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP excel/pdf [FHRP_HSRP_VRRP_GLBP.pdf | Compare_FHRP_2013.xls]

Saturday, January 19, 2013

Comparison of Routing Protocols EIGRP OSPF BGP with diagram

Now is as good a time to clarify the comparison of Routing Protocols (EIGRP, OSPF and BGP). All routing protocols have their strengths and weaknesses. Thus, to help you select the most appropriate routing protocol for your network. Let's see the comparison routing protocol and the diagram on each routing protocols...

Property   EIGRP OSPF  BGP
Administrative Distances Internal - 90
External 170
110 EBGP - 20
IBGP - 200
Method   Advanced distance vector  Link state Path vector
Summarization   Auto and manual Manual Auto and Manual
VLSM  Yes Yes Yes
Convergence Speed    Very fast convergence Fast Slow
Timers: Update
Triggered (LAN 5/15, WAN 60/180)  Triggered when network change occurs, send periodic update LSA refreshes every 30 minutes (NBMA 30/120, LAN 10/40) Triggered (60/180)
Network Size  Large Large Very large
Mixed-Vendor Devices No Yes Yes
Use multicast
Feature  - Partial updates conserve network bandwidth
- Support for IP, AppleTalk, and IPX
- Runs directly over IP, using protocol number 88
- Support for all Layer2 (data link layer) protocols and topologies
- Load balancing across equal-and unequal-cost pathways
- Multicast and unicast instead of broadcast address
- Support for authentication
- Manual summarization at any interface
- 100% loop-free classless routing
 - Minimizes the number of routing table entries
- Contains LSA flooding to a reasonable area
- Each routing device takes a copy of the LSA updates its LSDB and forward the LSA to all neighbor devices within area
- Minimizes the impact of a topology change
- Enforces the concept of a hierarchical network design
 - BGP provides the routing betw these autonomouse systems.
- BGP uses the concept of autonomous systems (AS). An autonomous system is a group of networks under a common administration. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigns AS numbers: 1 to 64511 are public AS
numbers and 64512 to 65535 are private AS numbers.
- IGP: A routing protocol that exchanges routing infor within AS. RIP, IGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and EIGRP are examples of IFPs.
- EGP: A routing protocol that exchanges routing infor betw different AS. BGP is an example of an EGP.
- The administrative distance for EBGP routes is 20. The administrative distance for IBGP routes is 200.
- BGP neighbors are called peers and must be statically configured.
- BGP uses TCP port 179. BGP peers exchange incremental, triggered route updates and periodic keepalives.
Operation - IP EIGRP Neighbor Table
- IP EIGRP Topology Table AD+FD
- The IP Routing Table
Neighbor Table
Topology Table LSDB
Routing Table
(LSA-> LSDB-> SPF algorithm-> SPF Tree-> Routing Table)
Function is controlled by EIGRP’s function is controlled by 4 key technologies:
- Neighbor discovery and maintenance: Periodic hello messages
- The Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP): Controls sending, tracking, and acknowledging EIGRP messages
- Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL): Determines the best loop-free route
- Protocol-independent modules (PDM): Modules are “plug-ins” for IP, IPX, Novel Netware and AppleTalk versions of EIGRP
Following are several types of areas:
- Backbone area: Area 0, which is attached to every other area.
- Regular area: Nonbackbone area; its database contains both internal and external routes.
- Stub area: It’s database contains only internal routes and a default route.
- Totally Stubby Area: Cisco proprietary area designation. Its database contains routes only for its own area and a
default route.
- Not-so-stubby area (NSSA): Its database contains internal routes, routes redistributed from a connected routing
process, and optionally a default route.
- Totally NSSA: Cisco proprietary area designation. Its database contains only routes for its own area, routes redistributed
from a connected routing process, and a default route.
BGP uses 3 databases. The first two listed are BGP-specific; the third is shared by all routing processes on the router:
- Neighbor database: A list of all configured BGP neighbors. To view it, use the show ip bgp summary
- BGP database, or RIB (Routing Information Base): A list of networks known by BGP, along with their
paths and attributes. To view it, use the show ip bgp command.
- Routing table: A list of the paths to each network used by the router, and the next hop for each network. To view
it, use the show ip route command.
Packet Types/BGP Message Types EIGRP uses 5 packet types:
- Hello: Identifies neighbors and serves as a keepalive mechanism sent multicast
- Update: Reliably sends route information unicast to a specific router
- Query: Reliably requests specific route information query packet multicast to its neighbors
- Reply: Reliably responds to a query replies are unicast
- ACK: Acknowledgment
The 5 OSPF packet types follow:
- Hello: Identifies neighbors and serves as a keepalive.
- Link State Request (LSR): Request for a Link State Update (LSU). Contains the type of LSU requested and the
ID of the router requesting it.
- Database Description (DBD): A summary of the LSDB, including the RID and sequence number of each LSA
in the LSDB.
- Link State Update (LSU): Contains a full LSA entry. An LSA includes topology information; for example, the
RID of this router and the RID and cost to each neighbor. One LSU can contain multiple LSAs.
- Link State Acknowledgment (LSAck): Acknowledges all other OSPF packets (except Hellos).
BGP has 4 types of messages:
- Open: After a neighbor is configured, BGP sends an open message to try to establish peering with that neighbor.
Includes information such as autonomous system number, router ID, and hold time.
- Update: Message used to transfer routing information between peers. Includes new routes, withdrawn routes, and
path attributes.
- Keepalive: BGP peers exchange keepalive messages every 60 seconds by default. These keep the peering session
- Notification: When a problem occurs that causes a router to end the BGP peering session, a notification message
is sent to the BGP neighbor and the connection is closed.
Neighbor Discovery and Route Exchange Neighbor Discovery and Route Exchange
Step 1. Router A sends out a hello.
Step 2. Router B sends back a hello and an update. The update contains routing information.
Step 3. Router A acknowledges the update.
Step 4. Router A sends its update.
Step 5. Router B acknowledges.
Establishing Neighbors and Exchanging Routes
Step 1. Down state: OSPF process not yet started, so no Hellos sent.
Step 2. Init state: Router sends Hello packets out all OSPF interfaces.
Step 3. Two-way state: Router receives a Hello from another router that contains its own router ID in the neighbor
list. All other required elements match, so routers can become neighbors.
Step 4. Exstart state: If routers become adjacent (exchange routes), they determine which one starts the
exchange process.
Step 5. Exchange state: Routers exchange DBDs listing the LSAs in their LSD by RID and sequence number.
Step 6. Loading state: Each router compares the DBD received to the contents of its LS database. It then sends a
LSR for missing or outdated LSAs. Each router responds to its neighbor’s LSR with a Link State Update.
Each LSU is acknowledged.
Step 7. Full state: The LSDB has been synchronized with the adjacent neighbor.
BGP Peering States
The command show ip bgp neighbors shows a list of peers and the status of their peering session. This status can
include the following states:
- Idle: No peering; router is looking for neighbor. Idle (admin) means that the neighbor relationship has been
administratively shut down.
- Connect: TCP handshake completed.
- OpenSent, or Active: An open message was sent to try to establish the peering.
- OpenConfirm: Router has received a reply to the open message.
- Established: Routers have a BGP peering session. This is the desired state.
Metric (Calculation) Bandwidth+Delay Cost= 100 Mbps/Bandwidth IBGP – 0
Redistributed routes metric = IGP metric

The previous diagram illustrates the structure of OSPF network

The previous diagram illustrates the structure of EIGRP network

The previous diagram illustrates the structure of BGP network

Here is the datasheet/Camparison sheet of Dynamic Routing Protocols for EIGRP, OSPF and BGP (Download: Compare_Table_Routing.xls)

Friday, January 4, 2013

Cisco Unified IP Phones 6900 and 7900 series

Cisco Unified IP Phones offer the high-quality, reliable communications your business needs every day. They also add new capabilities that increase your ability to collaborate within the workplace. [Focus on Cisco Small Business Model]

Let's see the product catalog that can be used in both Cisco Small Business and Cisco Enterprise company: Cisco Unified IP Phones 6900 and 7900 Series 

• Graphical color touchscreen display
• 8 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch
• Graphical color display
• 6 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch
• Grayscale graphical display
• 6 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Grayscale graphical display
• 2 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch
• Grayscale graphical display
• 2 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• 24 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• Single line
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical color display
• 6 lines
• Wireless
• Bluetooth capable
• Graphical color display
• 6 lines
• Wireless
• Backlit LCD display
• Power over Ethernet
• Support for external microphones
• Grayscale LCD display
• 7962G, 7965G, and 7975G support
• 2 modules supported per IP Phone
• Color LCD display
• 7962G, 7965G, and 7975G support
• 2 modules supported per IP phone
• Single line
• Power over Ethernet
• Paper insert
• Single line
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• 2 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• 4 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• 4 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100/1000 Ethernet switch
• Graphical monochrome display
• 12 lines
• Power over Ethernet
• 10/100 Ethernet switch
Update the new one at
Or Download Product Guide at Cisco Small Business Product Guide
Or Download Brochure at Cisco Unified IP Phone